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Physiology

Essential Understandings

1. Interaction of Systems

Systems of the human body interact in order to maintain homeostasis and survival.
Topics:

  • Nervous system: interprets stimuli and controls responses
  • Skeletal system: supports, protects, forms blood, and stores minerals
  • Digestive system: breakdown of macromolecules to molecules that the body can
    use for energy, storage, tissue synthesis and repair
  • Muscular system: locomotion (voluntary and involuntary), heat production
  • Respiratory system: gas exchange (O2, CO2) between blood and body tissues
  • Circulatory system: transport, immunity, temperature regulation
  • Integumentary system: protection, temperature regulation, sense reception
2. Homeostasis

The ability of the body to maintain a level of constancy in response to internal and external stimuli.
Topics:

  • Nervous system: controls rate of respiration in response to exercise
  • Skeletal system: provides attachment for muscles used during exercise
  • Digestive system: provides the fuel needed for energy expenditure during exercise
  • Muscular system: contraction of muscles creates movement during exercise
  • Respiratory system: provides necessary oxygen and removes waste CO­2 during exercise
  • Circulatory system: transports the necessary oxygen, waste CO2, and nutrients during exercise
  • Integumentary system: perspiration allows for cooling during exercise
3. Disease

An abnormality in body function that threatens well-being
Topics:

  • Nervous system: epilepsy, stroke, glaucoma, color-blindness, cataracts,
    refraction errors, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, deafness, etc.
  • Skeletal system: osteoporosis, fractures, leukemia, scoliosis, arthritis, bursitis,
    tendonitis, etc.
  • Digestive system: Irritable bowel syndrome, heartburn, ulcers, Crohn’s disease,
    diverticulitis, diarrhea, constipation, gallstones, appendicitis, etc.
  • Muscular system: bursitis, tendonitis, muscular dystrophy, sprains, strains,
    myasthenia gravis, cramps, etc.
  • Respiratory system: asthma, emphysema, bronchitis, pleurisy, pneumonia,
    rhinitis, sinusitis, etc.
  • Circulatory system: congestive heart failure, hypertension, sickle cell anemia,
    stroke, heart attack, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, murmur, congenital heart defects,
    aneurysms, anemia, leukemia, etc.
  • Integumentary system: skin cancer, psoriasis, eczema, ringworm, tineae, acne, burns,
    alopecia, nail fungi, etc.
4. Levels of Organization

The human body is a complex system requiring coordination from the chemical level up through the system level.
Topics:

  • Chemical level: atoms form molecules
  • Anatomical level: cells, tissues, organs, systems, organism
5. Nutrition

The body requires a specific level of assimilated vitamins, minerals, other inorganic and organic
molecules in order to maintain good health.
Topics:

  • The roles of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals in the human body
  • Various eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia, etc.
  • Sources of nutrients
  • Deficiency diseases
  • Over-consumption of certain nutrients
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