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Essential Understandings

1. Matter

Matter is neither created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical process. Matter can be
classified as elements, compounds, homogeneous mixtures or heterogeneous mixtue

2. Measurements Specific to Chemistry

Meticulous measurements and mathematics play an essential role in understanding the major
concepts of chemistry. A variety of technologies such as measuring instruments, calculators
and computers are used in scientific investigations.

3. The Atom

Atoms have specific properties and structures. Matter is made up of minute particles called atoms,
which are composed of even smaller components (protons, neutrons & electrons) that have measurable
properties, such as mass and electrical charge.

4. Periodicity

Elements are arranged and grouped in the periodic table based on their properties. The periodic table is
used to predict common properties of elements.

5. Bonding and Formula Writing

Atoms interact with each other by transferring or sharing valence electrons forming ionic or covalent bonds.
These outer electrons govern the chemical properties of the element.

6. Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chemical formulas and equations can be used to obtain and communicate information about chemical
reactions. Predictions can be made based on known quantities of reactants or products. In both chemical
and physical reactions energy may be consumed but is never created or destroyed.

7. Phases of Matter and Gas Laws

The Kinetic Molecular Theory is used to describe properties of solids, liquids, and gases. The higher the
temperature, the greater the atomic or molecular motion. Changes in pressure, temperature or
volume of a gas result in predictable changes in either of the other properties.

8. Solutions

Solutions such as acids, bases, salts and non-electrolytes are homogenous mixtures having identifiable
and predictable properties.