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Essential Understandings


1. Linear Motion

The motion of an object can be described by time rates of change. Motion can be described
through graphical analysis.

2. Vectors

Quantities can be either vectors or scalars. Perpendicular vectors are independent of each other.

3. Motion in Two-dimensions (Projectile Motion)

The independent and different nature of vertical and horizontal components of motion contribute to the
parabolic path of a projectile.


4. Newton’s Laws

A non-zero net force is required to have a change in the state of motion of an object. Objects
change motion only when a net force is applied. Laws of motion are used to explain the effects
of forces on the motion of objects

5. Motion in Two-dimensions (Circular Motion)

Circular motion is the result of a center-seeking force


6. Gravitation

Gravitation is the result of the attraction between all mass/matter.

7. Mechanical Energy and Work and Thermal Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed. The total mass and energy of the universe is constant.
Energy can be transferred from one form to another by doing work.


8. Impulse and Momentum

Impulse can result in a change in momentum. In a close isolated system, interactions between
objects result in no net change in momentum.


9. Waves and Sound

Waves are nature’s way of transferring energy without transferring matter. There are a variety
of wave types and classifications. Waves have predictable characteristics and behaviors.

10. Light and Color and Unit Quantum Theory and Unit Optics

Light is a phenomena that has both wave and particle behaviors.

Electricity & Magnetism

11. Electrostatics and Electric Fields

An electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. All charged objects have electric fields.

12. Current Electricity

Electric current is the result of moving charged particles.

13. Magnetism and Unit: Electromagnetic Induction

Moving electric charges produce magnetic fields, and moving magnets produce electric forces.


14. Nuclear Physics

The strong-nuclear force holds the atom together.