1. Interaction of Systems
Systems of the human body interact in order to maintain homeostasis and survival.
- Nervous system: interprets stimuli and controls responses
- Skeletal system: supports, protects, forms blood, and stores minerals
- Digestive system: breakdown of macromolecules to molecules that the body can
use for energy, storage, tissue synthesis and repair
- Muscular system: locomotion (voluntary and involuntary), heat production
- Respiratory system: gas exchange (O2, CO2) between blood and body tissues
- Circulatory system: transport, immunity, temperature regulation
- Integumentary system: protection, temperature regulation, sense reception
The ability of the body to maintain a level of constancy in response to internal and external stimuli.
- Nervous system: controls rate of respiration in response to exercise
- Skeletal system: provides attachment for muscles used during exercise
- Digestive system: provides the fuel needed for energy expenditure during exercise
- Muscular system: contraction of muscles creates movement during exercise
- Respiratory system: provides necessary oxygen and removes waste CO2 during exercise
- Circulatory system: transports the necessary oxygen, waste CO2, and nutrients during exercise
- Integumentary system: perspiration allows for cooling during exercise
An abnormality in body function that threatens well-being
- Nervous system: epilepsy, stroke, glaucoma, color-blindness, cataracts,
refraction errors, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, deafness, etc.
- Skeletal system: osteoporosis, fractures, leukemia, scoliosis, arthritis, bursitis,
- Digestive system: Irritable bowel syndrome, heartburn, ulcers, Crohn’s disease,
diverticulitis, diarrhea, constipation, gallstones, appendicitis, etc.
- Muscular system: bursitis, tendonitis, muscular dystrophy, sprains, strains,
myasthenia gravis, cramps, etc.
- Respiratory system: asthma, emphysema, bronchitis, pleurisy, pneumonia,
rhinitis, sinusitis, etc.
- Circulatory system: congestive heart failure, hypertension, sickle cell anemia,
stroke, heart attack, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, murmur, congenital heart defects,
aneurysms, anemia, leukemia, etc.
- Integumentary system: skin cancer, psoriasis, eczema, ringworm, tineae, acne, burns,
alopecia, nail fungi, etc.
4. Levels of Organization
The human body is a complex system requiring coordination from the chemical level up through the system level.
- Chemical level: atoms form molecules
- Anatomical level: cells, tissues, organs, systems, organism
The body requires a specific level of assimilated vitamins, minerals, other inorganic and organic
molecules in order to maintain good health.
- The roles of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals in the human body
- Various eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia, etc.
- Sources of nutrients
- Deficiency diseases
- Over-consumption of certain nutrients